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Jump to: Actress Self Archive footage. The Client. For the Roma communities that have resided in the Balkans for numerous centuries, often referred to as "Turkish Gypsies", the following histories apply for religious beliefs:.

In Ukraine and Russia, the Roma populations are also Muslim as the families of Balkan migrants continue to live in these locations.

Their ancestors settled on the Crimean peninsula during the 17th and 18th centuries, but then migrated to Ukraine, southern Russia and the Povolzhie along the Volga River.

Formally, Islam is the religion that these communities align themselves with and the people are recognized for their staunch preservation of the Romani language and identity.

In Poland and Slovakia , their populations are Roman Catholic, many times adopting and following local, cultural Catholicism as a syncretic system of belief that incorporates distinct Roma beliefs and cultural aspects.

For example, many Polish Roma delays their Church wedding due to the belief that sacramental marriage is accompanied by divine ratification, creating a virtually indissoluble union until the couple consummate, after which the sacramental marriage is dissoluble only by the death of a spouse.

Therefore, for Polish Roma, once married, one can't ever divorce. Bulgaria's popular "wedding music", too, is almost exclusively performed by Romani musicians such as Ivo Papasov , a virtuoso clarinetist closely associated with this genre and Bulgarian pop-folk singer Azis.

Many famous classical musicians, such as the Hungarian pianist Georges Cziffra , are Romani, as are many prominent performers of manele.

Dances such as the flamenco of Spain and Oriental dances of Egypt are said to have originated from the Romani. The distinctive sound of Romani music has also strongly influenced bolero , jazz , and flamenco especially cante jondo in Spain.

European-style gypsy jazz "jazz Manouche" or "Sinti jazz" is still widely practiced among the original creators the Romanie People ; one who acknowledged this artistic debt was guitarist Django Reinhardt.

The Romanies of Turkey have achieved musical acclaim from national and local audiences. Local performers usually perform for special holidays.

Romani contemporary art is art created by Romani people. It emerged at the climax of the process that began in Central and Eastern Europe in the lates, when the interpretation of the cultural practice of minorities was enabled by a paradigm shift, commonly referred to in specialist literature as the Cultural turn.

The idea of the "cultural turn" was introduced; and this was also the time when the notion of cultural democracy became crystallized in the debates carried on at various public forums.

Civil society gained strength, and civil politics appeared, which is a prerequisite for cultural democracy. This shift of attitude in scholarly circles derived from concerns specific not only to ethnicity, but also to society, gender and class.

Most Romani speak one of several dialects of the Romani language , [] an Indo-Aryan language, with roots in Sanskrit. They also often speak the languages of the countries they live in.

Typically, they also incorporate loanwords and calques into Romani from the languages of those countries and especially words for terms that the Romani language does not have.

Most of the speaker communities in these regions consist of later immigrants from eastern or central Europe.

There are no concrete statistics for the number of Romani speakers, both in Europe and globally. However, a conservative estimation has been made at 3.

This makes Romani the second largest minority language in Europe, behind Catalan. In relation to dialect diversity, Romani works in the same way as most other European languages.

One of the most enduring persecutions against the Romani people was their enslavement. Slavery was widely practiced in medieval Europe , including the territory of present-day Romania from before the founding of the principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia in the 13th—14th century.

The exact origins of slavery in the Danubian Principalities are not known. There is some debate over whether the Romani people came to Wallachia and Moldavia as free men or were brought as slaves.

Historian Nicolae Iorga associated the Roma people's arrival with the Mongol invasion of Europe and considered their slavery as a vestige of that era, in which the Romanians took the Roma as slaves from the Mongols and preserved their status to use their labor.

Other historians believe that the Romani were enslaved while captured during the battles with the Tatars. The practice of enslaving war prisoners may also have been adopted from the Mongols.

Some Romani may have been slaves or auxiliary troops of the Mongols or Tatars, but most of them migrated from south of the Danube at the end of the 14th century, some time after the foundation of Wallachia.

By then, the institution of slavery was already established in Moldavia and possibly in both principalities. After the Roma migrated into the area, slavery became a widespread practice by the majority population.

The Tatar slaves, smaller in numbers, were eventually merged into the Roma population. Some branches of the Romani people reached Western Europe in the 15th century, fleeing as refugees from the Ottoman conquest of the Balkans.

In Western Europe, such suspicions and discrimination against a people who were a visible minority resulted in persecution, often violent, with efforts to achieve ethnic cleansing until the modern era.

In times of social tension, the Romani suffered as scapegoats; for instance, they were accused of bringing the plague during times of epidemics.

The Spanish Crown ordered a nationwide raid that led to the break-up of families as all able-bodied men were interned into forced labor camps in an attempt at ethnic cleansing.

The measure was eventually reversed and the Romanis were freed as protests began to arise in different communities, sedentary romanis being highly esteemed and protected in rural Spain.

Later in the 19th century, Romani immigration was forbidden on a racial basis in areas outside Europe, mostly in the English-speaking world.

Argentina in prohibited immigration by Roma, as did the United States in In the Habsburg Monarchy under Maria Theresa — , a series of decrees tried to force the Romanies to permanently settle , removed rights to horse and wagon ownership , renamed them as "New Citizens" and forced Romani boys into military service if they had no trade , forced them to register with the local authorities , and prohibited marriage between Romanies Her successor Josef II prohibited the wearing of traditional Romani clothing and the use of the Romani language , punishable by flogging.

In Spain, attempts to assimilate the Gitanos were under way as early as , when Gitanos were forcibly settled, the use of the Romani language was prohibited, Gitano men and women were sent to separate workhouses and their children sent to orphanages.

King Charles III took on a more progressive attitude to Gitano assimilation, proclaiming their equal rights as Spanish citizens and ending official denigration based on their race.

While he prohibited the nomadic lifestyle, the use of the Calo language , Romani clothing, their trade in horses and other itinerant trades, he also forbade any form of discrimination against them or barring them from the guilds.

The use of the word gitano was also forbidden to further assimilation, substituted for "New Castilian", which was also applied to former Jews and Muslims.

One author ascribes its failure to the overall rejection by the wider population of the integration of the Gitanos. Other examples of forced assimilation include Norway , where a law was passed in permitting the state to remove children from their parents and place them in state institutions.

In , the Nuremberg laws stripped the Romani people living in Nazi Germany of their citizenship, after which they were subjected to violence, imprisonment in concentration camps and later genocide in extermination camps.

The policy was extended in areas occupied by the Nazis during the war, and it was also applied by their allies, notably the Independent State of Croatia, Romania, and Hungary.

Because no accurate pre-war census figures exist for the Romanis, it is impossible to accurately assess the actual number of victims.

Most estimates for numbers of Romani victims of the Holocaust fall between , and ,, although figures ranging between 90, and 1.

Lower estimates do not include those killed in all Axis-controlled countries. A detailed study by Sybil Milton, formerly senior historian at the U.

Holocaust Memorial Museum gave a figure of at least a minimum of ,, possibly closer to , In Central Europe, the extermination in the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia was so thorough that the Bohemian Romani language became extinct.

In Europe, Romani people are associated with poverty, and are accused of high rates of crime and behaviours that are perceived by the rest of the population as being antisocial or inappropriate.

In Eastern Europe, Roma children often attend Roma Special Schools , separate from non-Roma children, which puts them at an educational disadvantage.

The Romanis of Kosovo have been severely persecuted by ethnic Albanians since the end of the Kosovo War , and the region's Romani community is, for the most part, annihilated.

Czechoslovakia carried out a policy of sterilization of Romani women, starting in In , following the rape and subsequent murder of an Italian woman in Rome at the hands of a young man from a local Romani encampment, [] the Italian government declared that Italy's Romani population represented a national security risk and that swift action was required to address the emergenza nomadi nomad emergency.

The deaths of Cristina and Violetta Djeordsevic , two Roma children who drowned while Italian beach-goers remained unperturbed, brought international attention to the relationship between Italians and the Roma people.

Reviewing the situation in , one Belgian magazine observed:. On International Roma Day, which falls on 8 April, the significant proportion of Europe's 12 million Roma who live in deplorable conditions will not have much to celebrate.

And poverty is not the only worry for the community. Ethnic tensions are on the rise. In , Roma camps came under attack in Italy, intimidation by racist parliamentarians is the norm in Hungary.

The consequences of the transition to capitalism have been disastrous for the Roma. Under communism they had jobs, free housing and schooling.

Now many are unemployed, many are losing their homes and racism is increasingly rewarded with impunity. Reports of anti-Roma incidents are increasing across Europe.

In the summer of , French authorities demolished at least 51 illegal Roma camps and began the process of repatriating their residents to their countries of origin.

In retaliation a group of Roma, armed with hatchets and iron bars, attacked the police station of Saint-Aignan, toppled traffic lights and road signs and burned three cars.

A leaked file dated 5 August, sent from the Interior Ministry to regional police chiefs, included the instruction: "Three hundred camps or illegal settlements must be cleared within three months, Roma camps are a priority.

Many depictions of Romani people in literature and art present romanticized narratives of mystical powers of fortune telling or irascible or passionate temper paired with an indomitable love of freedom and a habit of criminality.

Romani were a popular subject in Venetian painting from the time of Giorgione at the start of the 16th century; the inclusion of such a figure adds an exotic oriental flavour to scenes.

A Venetian Renaissance painting by Paris Bordone ca. The Romani were also heavily romanticized in the Soviet Union , a classic example being the film Tabor ukhodit v Nebo.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 12 October Not to be confused with Romanians , an unrelated ethnic group and nation, nor with modern or ancient Romans , also unrelated.

For other uses, see Romani disambiguation. Ethnic group living mostly in Europe and the Americas. Romani flag created in and accepted by the World Romani Congress.

Main article: Names of the Romani people. See why. July Main article: Romani populations. Main article: Romani diaspora.

Main article: History of the Romani people. Main article: Porajmos. Main article: Romani society and culture. This section needs additional citations for verification.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

June Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main articles: Romanipen and Gadjo non-Romani. Main article: Romani music. Main article: Romani contemporary art.

Main article: Romani language. Main article: Antiziganism. Main article: Expulsion of Romani people from France. Main article: Romani people in fiction.

Some 1,, 6. There was not any option for a person to declare multiple ethnicities. There was an option to declare multiple ethnicities, so this figure includes Romani of multiple backgrounds.

According to the microcensus Some , 5. Some , 7. There was an additional 3, Balkan Egyptians. The Republic of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February , but Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory.

The two governments began to normalise relations in , as part of the Brussels Agreement. Kosovo is currently recognized as an independent state by 98 out of the United Nations member states.

In total, UN member states recognized Kosovo at some point, of which 15 later withdrew their recognition. Paul, ed. Retrieved 15 September Ian Hancock 's estimate for 'all Gypsies in the world' was 6 to 11 million.

BBC News. Retrieved 20 November The marginalization of shadow minorities Roma and its impact on opportunities Doctoral dissertation, Purdue University.

Keep a Low Profile". Retrieved 3 October Today, estimates put the number of Roma in the U. Archived from the original on 11 January Retrieved 22 January European Commission — European Commission.

Open Society Institute. Archived from the original PDF on 1 December The Spanish government estimates the number of Gitanos at a maximum of , Tabla 1.

This figure is disputed by other sources, because at the local level, many Roma declare a different ethnicity mostly Romanian, but also Hungarian in Transylvania and Turkish in Dobruja.

Many are not recorded at all, since they do not have ID cards [2]. National Institute of Statistics Romania. Retrieved 18 December However, various organizations claim that there are 2 million Romanis in Romania.

Archived from the original on 10 October Retrieved 17 June Retrieved 2 January Hurriyet in Turkish. EurActiv Network.

Retrieved 21 October According to the report, the settled Gypsy population in France is officially estimated at around ,, although other estimates say that the actual figure is much closer to 1.

La Croix. For travellers, the administration counted , circulation titles in issued to people aged 16 to 80 years.

Among the travellers, some have chosen to buy a family plot where they dock their caravans around a local section authorized since the Besson Act of Bulgarian National Statistical Institute in Bulgarian.

Archived from the original on 2 June Retrieved 22 June Brussels: European Commission. Retrieved 28 April Mikrocenzus - Ethnic data ] PDF.

Hungarian Central Statistical Office in Hungarian. Retrieved 9 January Területi Statisztika in Hungarian. Retrieved 17 July State Statistical Service of the Republic of Serbia.

European Roma Rights Centre. Archived from the original PDF on 3 February Retrieved 23 December Nick Kampouris.

Greek Helsinki Monitor. LV: Minelres. Resident population by nationality" PDF. SK : Statistics. Archived from the original PDF on 15 July SME in Slovak.

Retrieved 25 September Archived from the original on 15 May Republic of Macedonia, State Statistical Office.

Archived from the original on 21 June Retrieved 17 September Historical Dictionary of the Gypsies Romanies 2nd ed.

Scarecrow Press. Retrieved 27 November Country studies. Retrieved 28 August Croatian Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 21 June Inter Press Service.

Retrieved 30 July Government of Finland. Retrieved 8 January Archived from the original XLS on 24 September Retrieved 7 December Archived from the original PDF on 18 September Retrieved 21 April Archived from the original PDF on 14 June Retrieved 11 February Retrieved 13 July Europe, Cleveland, OH: Eastword, pp.

Roma believe in a universal balance, called kuntari Despite a 1,year separation from India, Roma still practice 'shaktism', the worship of a god through his female consort Now and Then.

Australia: Open ABC. Archived from the original on 11 August Retrieved 28 July Retrieved 8 December Rough Guides. Bhanoo 11 December New York Times.

The Gypsies, or Romanies, are an ethnic group that arrived in Europe around the 14th century. Scholars argue about when and how they left India , but it is generally accepted that they did emigrate from northern India some time between the 6th and 11th centuries, then crossed the Middle East and came into Europe.

University of Manchester. Romani Linguistics and Romani Language Projects. Retrieved 23 July Professor take on roles of Romani activist and spokesperson to improve plight of their ethnic group".

Archived from the original on 5 February Retrieved 30 January History Daily. Archived from the original PDF on July Retrieved 9 November Retrieved 3 September Retrieved 4 March Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics.

Oxford: Elsevier. Retrieved 30 August In some regions of Europe, especially the western margins Britain, the Iberian peninsula , Romani-speaking communities have given up their language in favor of the majority language, but have retained Romani-derived vocabulary as an in-group code.

Real Academia de la Lengua. Retrieved 20 January Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 27 December Houghton Mifflin Company.

The Traveller Movement. Friends, Families and Travellers. Scritube in Romanian. Retrieved 17 February Retrieved 31 July Dictionary of Legal Usage.

Oxford University Press. Minority rights protection in international law: the Roma of Europe. The Institute for Middle East Understanding.

Archived from the original on 23 May Golden Horn. Archived from the original on 20 March Retrieved 26 August A Handbook of Vlax Romani.

Slavica Publishers. Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster. Wedeck with the assistance of Wade Dictionary of gypsy life and lore. New York: Philosophical Library.

The Free Dictionary. Archived from the original on 10 August Population Studies. European Commission. Council of Europe. Archived from the original on 22 June Archived from the original PDF on 12 March Rai et al.

Educated Gypsy: Selected Essays. Univ of Hertfordshire Press. Slovakia: Retrieved 7 September

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In England, Romani were sometimes expelled from small communities or hanged; in France, they were branded, and their heads were shaved; in Moravia and Bohemia , the women were marked by their ears being severed.

As a result, large groups of the Romani moved to the East, toward Poland , which was more tolerant, and Russia , where the Romani were treated more fairly as long as they paid the annual taxes.

Romani began emigrating to North America in colonial times, with small groups recorded in Virginia and French Louisiana.

The most significant number immigrated in the early 20th century, mainly from the Vlax group of Kalderash. Many Romani also settled in South America.

They were often killed on sight, especially by the Einsatzgruppen paramilitary death squads on the Eastern Front. The treatment of the Romani in Nazi puppet states differed markedly.

In Czechoslovakia , they were labeled a "socially degraded stratum", and Romani women were sterilized as part of a state policy to reduce their population.

This policy was implemented with large financial incentives, threats of denying future welfare payments, with misinformation, or after administering drugs.

An official inquiry from the Czech Republic, resulting in a report December , concluded that the Communist authorities had practised an assimilation policy towards Romanis, which "included efforts by social services to control the birth rate in the Romani community.

The problem of sexual sterilisation carried out in the Czech Republic, either with improper motivation or illegally, exists," said the Czech Public Defender of Rights, recommending state compensation for women affected between and Germany, Norway, Sweden and Switzerland "all have histories of coercive sterilization of minorities and other groups".

The traditional Romanies place a high value on the extended family. Virginity is essential in unmarried women.

Both men and women often marry young; there has been controversy in several countries over the Romani practise of child marriage.

Romani law establishes that the man's family must pay a bride price to the bride's parents, but only traditional families still follow it. Once married, the woman joins the husband's family, where her main job is to tend to her husband's and her children's needs and take care of her in-laws.

The power structure in the traditional Romani household has at its top the oldest man or grandfather, and men, in general, have more authority than women.

Women gain respect and power as they get older. Young wives begin gaining authority once they have children. Romani social behavior is strictly regulated by Indian social customs [] "marime" or "marhime" , still respected by most Roma and by most older generations of Sinti.

This regulation affects many aspects of life and is applied to actions, people and things: parts of the human body are considered impure: the genital organs because they produce emissions and the rest of the lower body.

Clothes for the lower body, as well as the clothes of menstruating women, are washed separately. Items used for eating are also washed in a different place.

Childbirth is considered impure and must occur outside the dwelling place. The mother is deemed to be impure for forty days after giving birth.

Death is considered impure, and affects the whole family of the dead, who remain impure for a period of time.

In contrast to the practice of cremating the dead, Romani dead must be buried. In Romani philosophy, Romanipen also romanypen , romanipe , romanype , romanimos , romaimos , romaniya is the totality of the Romani spirit, Romani culture , Romani Law , being a Romani, a set of Romani strains.

An ethnic Romani is considered a gadjo in the Romani society if he has no Romanipen. Sometimes a non-Romani may be considered a Romani if he has Romanipen.

Usually this is an adopted child. It has been hypothesized that it owes more to a framework of culture rather than simply an adherence to historically received rules.

Most Romani people are Christian, [] others Muslim ; some retained their ancient faith of Hinduism from their original homeland of India , while others have their own religion and political organization.

The ancestors of modern-day Romani people were Hindu , but adopted Christianity or Islam depending on the regions through which they had migrated.

In neighboring countries such as Serbia and Greece , most Romani inhabitants follow the practice of Orthodoxy.

It is likely that the adherence to differing religions prevented families from engaging in intermarriage. In Spain, most Gitanos are Roman Catholics.

However, the proportion of followers of Evangelical Christianity among Gitanos is higher than among the rest of Spaniards. Since the turn of the 21st century, Sara e Kali is understood to have been Kali , an Indian deity brought from India by the refugee ancestors of the Roma people; as the Roma became Christianized, she was absorbed in a syncretic way and venerated as a saint.

Saint Sarah is now increasingly being considered as "a Romani Goddess, the Protectress of the Roma" and an "indisputable link with Mother India".

Romanies often adopt the dominant religion of their host country in the event that a ceremony associated with a formal religious institution is necessary, such as a baptism or funeral their particular belief systems and indigenous religion and worship remain preserved regardless of such adoption processes.

The Roma continue to practice " Shaktism ", a practice with origins in India, whereby a female consort is required for the worship of a god.

Adherence to this practice means that for the Roma who worship the Christian God, prayer is conducted through the Virgin Mary , or her mother, Saint Anne.

Shaktism continues over one thousand years after the people's separation from India. For the Roma communities that have resided in the Balkans for numerous centuries, often referred to as "Turkish Gypsies", the following histories apply for religious beliefs:.

In Ukraine and Russia, the Roma populations are also Muslim as the families of Balkan migrants continue to live in these locations.

Their ancestors settled on the Crimean peninsula during the 17th and 18th centuries, but then migrated to Ukraine, southern Russia and the Povolzhie along the Volga River.

Formally, Islam is the religion that these communities align themselves with and the people are recognized for their staunch preservation of the Romani language and identity.

In Poland and Slovakia , their populations are Roman Catholic, many times adopting and following local, cultural Catholicism as a syncretic system of belief that incorporates distinct Roma beliefs and cultural aspects.

For example, many Polish Roma delays their Church wedding due to the belief that sacramental marriage is accompanied by divine ratification, creating a virtually indissoluble union until the couple consummate, after which the sacramental marriage is dissoluble only by the death of a spouse.

Therefore, for Polish Roma, once married, one can't ever divorce. Bulgaria's popular "wedding music", too, is almost exclusively performed by Romani musicians such as Ivo Papasov , a virtuoso clarinetist closely associated with this genre and Bulgarian pop-folk singer Azis.

Many famous classical musicians, such as the Hungarian pianist Georges Cziffra , are Romani, as are many prominent performers of manele.

Dances such as the flamenco of Spain and Oriental dances of Egypt are said to have originated from the Romani. The distinctive sound of Romani music has also strongly influenced bolero , jazz , and flamenco especially cante jondo in Spain.

European-style gypsy jazz "jazz Manouche" or "Sinti jazz" is still widely practiced among the original creators the Romanie People ; one who acknowledged this artistic debt was guitarist Django Reinhardt.

The Romanies of Turkey have achieved musical acclaim from national and local audiences. Local performers usually perform for special holidays.

Romani contemporary art is art created by Romani people. It emerged at the climax of the process that began in Central and Eastern Europe in the lates, when the interpretation of the cultural practice of minorities was enabled by a paradigm shift, commonly referred to in specialist literature as the Cultural turn.

The idea of the "cultural turn" was introduced; and this was also the time when the notion of cultural democracy became crystallized in the debates carried on at various public forums.

Civil society gained strength, and civil politics appeared, which is a prerequisite for cultural democracy. This shift of attitude in scholarly circles derived from concerns specific not only to ethnicity, but also to society, gender and class.

Most Romani speak one of several dialects of the Romani language , [] an Indo-Aryan language, with roots in Sanskrit. They also often speak the languages of the countries they live in.

Typically, they also incorporate loanwords and calques into Romani from the languages of those countries and especially words for terms that the Romani language does not have.

Most of the speaker communities in these regions consist of later immigrants from eastern or central Europe.

There are no concrete statistics for the number of Romani speakers, both in Europe and globally. However, a conservative estimation has been made at 3.

This makes Romani the second largest minority language in Europe, behind Catalan. In relation to dialect diversity, Romani works in the same way as most other European languages.

One of the most enduring persecutions against the Romani people was their enslavement. Slavery was widely practiced in medieval Europe , including the territory of present-day Romania from before the founding of the principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia in the 13th—14th century.

The exact origins of slavery in the Danubian Principalities are not known. There is some debate over whether the Romani people came to Wallachia and Moldavia as free men or were brought as slaves.

Historian Nicolae Iorga associated the Roma people's arrival with the Mongol invasion of Europe and considered their slavery as a vestige of that era, in which the Romanians took the Roma as slaves from the Mongols and preserved their status to use their labor.

Other historians believe that the Romani were enslaved while captured during the battles with the Tatars. The practice of enslaving war prisoners may also have been adopted from the Mongols.

Some Romani may have been slaves or auxiliary troops of the Mongols or Tatars, but most of them migrated from south of the Danube at the end of the 14th century, some time after the foundation of Wallachia.

By then, the institution of slavery was already established in Moldavia and possibly in both principalities. After the Roma migrated into the area, slavery became a widespread practice by the majority population.

The Tatar slaves, smaller in numbers, were eventually merged into the Roma population. Some branches of the Romani people reached Western Europe in the 15th century, fleeing as refugees from the Ottoman conquest of the Balkans.

In Western Europe, such suspicions and discrimination against a people who were a visible minority resulted in persecution, often violent, with efforts to achieve ethnic cleansing until the modern era.

In times of social tension, the Romani suffered as scapegoats; for instance, they were accused of bringing the plague during times of epidemics. The Spanish Crown ordered a nationwide raid that led to the break-up of families as all able-bodied men were interned into forced labor camps in an attempt at ethnic cleansing.

The measure was eventually reversed and the Romanis were freed as protests began to arise in different communities, sedentary romanis being highly esteemed and protected in rural Spain.

Later in the 19th century, Romani immigration was forbidden on a racial basis in areas outside Europe, mostly in the English-speaking world. Argentina in prohibited immigration by Roma, as did the United States in In the Habsburg Monarchy under Maria Theresa — , a series of decrees tried to force the Romanies to permanently settle , removed rights to horse and wagon ownership , renamed them as "New Citizens" and forced Romani boys into military service if they had no trade , forced them to register with the local authorities , and prohibited marriage between Romanies Her successor Josef II prohibited the wearing of traditional Romani clothing and the use of the Romani language , punishable by flogging.

In Spain, attempts to assimilate the Gitanos were under way as early as , when Gitanos were forcibly settled, the use of the Romani language was prohibited, Gitano men and women were sent to separate workhouses and their children sent to orphanages.

King Charles III took on a more progressive attitude to Gitano assimilation, proclaiming their equal rights as Spanish citizens and ending official denigration based on their race.

While he prohibited the nomadic lifestyle, the use of the Calo language , Romani clothing, their trade in horses and other itinerant trades, he also forbade any form of discrimination against them or barring them from the guilds.

The use of the word gitano was also forbidden to further assimilation, substituted for "New Castilian", which was also applied to former Jews and Muslims.

One author ascribes its failure to the overall rejection by the wider population of the integration of the Gitanos. Other examples of forced assimilation include Norway , where a law was passed in permitting the state to remove children from their parents and place them in state institutions.

In , the Nuremberg laws stripped the Romani people living in Nazi Germany of their citizenship, after which they were subjected to violence, imprisonment in concentration camps and later genocide in extermination camps.

The policy was extended in areas occupied by the Nazis during the war, and it was also applied by their allies, notably the Independent State of Croatia, Romania, and Hungary.

Because no accurate pre-war census figures exist for the Romanis, it is impossible to accurately assess the actual number of victims. Most estimates for numbers of Romani victims of the Holocaust fall between , and ,, although figures ranging between 90, and 1.

Lower estimates do not include those killed in all Axis-controlled countries. A detailed study by Sybil Milton, formerly senior historian at the U.

Holocaust Memorial Museum gave a figure of at least a minimum of ,, possibly closer to , In Central Europe, the extermination in the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia was so thorough that the Bohemian Romani language became extinct.

In Europe, Romani people are associated with poverty, and are accused of high rates of crime and behaviours that are perceived by the rest of the population as being antisocial or inappropriate.

In Eastern Europe, Roma children often attend Roma Special Schools , separate from non-Roma children, which puts them at an educational disadvantage.

The Romanis of Kosovo have been severely persecuted by ethnic Albanians since the end of the Kosovo War , and the region's Romani community is, for the most part, annihilated.

Czechoslovakia carried out a policy of sterilization of Romani women, starting in In , following the rape and subsequent murder of an Italian woman in Rome at the hands of a young man from a local Romani encampment, [] the Italian government declared that Italy's Romani population represented a national security risk and that swift action was required to address the emergenza nomadi nomad emergency.

The deaths of Cristina and Violetta Djeordsevic , two Roma children who drowned while Italian beach-goers remained unperturbed, brought international attention to the relationship between Italians and the Roma people.

Reviewing the situation in , one Belgian magazine observed:. On International Roma Day, which falls on 8 April, the significant proportion of Europe's 12 million Roma who live in deplorable conditions will not have much to celebrate.

And poverty is not the only worry for the community. Ethnic tensions are on the rise. In , Roma camps came under attack in Italy, intimidation by racist parliamentarians is the norm in Hungary.

The consequences of the transition to capitalism have been disastrous for the Roma. Under communism they had jobs, free housing and schooling.

Now many are unemployed, many are losing their homes and racism is increasingly rewarded with impunity.

Reports of anti-Roma incidents are increasing across Europe. In the summer of , French authorities demolished at least 51 illegal Roma camps and began the process of repatriating their residents to their countries of origin.

In retaliation a group of Roma, armed with hatchets and iron bars, attacked the police station of Saint-Aignan, toppled traffic lights and road signs and burned three cars.

A leaked file dated 5 August, sent from the Interior Ministry to regional police chiefs, included the instruction: "Three hundred camps or illegal settlements must be cleared within three months, Roma camps are a priority.

Many depictions of Romani people in literature and art present romanticized narratives of mystical powers of fortune telling or irascible or passionate temper paired with an indomitable love of freedom and a habit of criminality.

Romani were a popular subject in Venetian painting from the time of Giorgione at the start of the 16th century; the inclusion of such a figure adds an exotic oriental flavour to scenes.

A Venetian Renaissance painting by Paris Bordone ca. The Romani were also heavily romanticized in the Soviet Union , a classic example being the film Tabor ukhodit v Nebo.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 12 October Not to be confused with Romanians , an unrelated ethnic group and nation, nor with modern or ancient Romans , also unrelated.

For other uses, see Romani disambiguation. Ethnic group living mostly in Europe and the Americas. Romani flag created in and accepted by the World Romani Congress.

Main article: Names of the Romani people. See why. July Main article: Romani populations. Main article: Romani diaspora. Main article: History of the Romani people.

Main article: Porajmos. Main article: Romani society and culture. This section needs additional citations for verification.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

June Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main articles: Romanipen and Gadjo non-Romani. Main article: Romani music. Main article: Romani contemporary art.

Main article: Romani language. Main article: Antiziganism. Main article: Expulsion of Romani people from France.

Main article: Romani people in fiction. Some 1,, 6. There was not any option for a person to declare multiple ethnicities. There was an option to declare multiple ethnicities, so this figure includes Romani of multiple backgrounds.

According to the microcensus Some , 5. Some , 7. There was an additional 3, Balkan Egyptians. The Republic of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February , but Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory.

The two governments began to normalise relations in , as part of the Brussels Agreement. Kosovo is currently recognized as an independent state by 98 out of the United Nations member states.

In total, UN member states recognized Kosovo at some point, of which 15 later withdrew their recognition. Paul, ed. Retrieved 15 September Ian Hancock 's estimate for 'all Gypsies in the world' was 6 to 11 million.

BBC News. Retrieved 20 November The marginalization of shadow minorities Roma and its impact on opportunities Doctoral dissertation, Purdue University.

Keep a Low Profile". Retrieved 3 October Today, estimates put the number of Roma in the U. Archived from the original on 11 January Retrieved 22 January European Commission — European Commission.

Open Society Institute. Archived from the original PDF on 1 December The Spanish government estimates the number of Gitanos at a maximum of , Tabla 1.

This figure is disputed by other sources, because at the local level, many Roma declare a different ethnicity mostly Romanian, but also Hungarian in Transylvania and Turkish in Dobruja.

Many are not recorded at all, since they do not have ID cards [2]. National Institute of Statistics Romania. Retrieved 18 December However, various organizations claim that there are 2 million Romanis in Romania.

Archived from the original on 10 October Retrieved 17 June Retrieved 2 January Hurriyet in Turkish. EurActiv Network.

Retrieved 21 October According to the report, the settled Gypsy population in France is officially estimated at around ,, although other estimates say that the actual figure is much closer to 1.

La Croix. For travellers, the administration counted , circulation titles in issued to people aged 16 to 80 years. Among the travellers, some have chosen to buy a family plot where they dock their caravans around a local section authorized since the Besson Act of Bulgarian National Statistical Institute in Bulgarian.

Archived from the original on 2 June Retrieved 22 June Brussels: European Commission. Retrieved 28 April Mikrocenzus - Ethnic data ] PDF.

Hungarian Central Statistical Office in Hungarian. Retrieved 9 January Területi Statisztika in Hungarian. Retrieved 17 July State Statistical Service of the Republic of Serbia.

European Roma Rights Centre. Archived from the original PDF on 3 February Retrieved 23 December Nick Kampouris. Greek Helsinki Monitor. LV: Minelres.

Resident population by nationality" PDF. SK : Statistics. Archived from the original PDF on 15 July SME in Slovak. Retrieved 25 September Archived from the original on 15 May Republic of Macedonia, State Statistical Office.

Archived from the original on 21 June Retrieved 17 September Historical Dictionary of the Gypsies Romanies 2nd ed. Scarecrow Press.

Retrieved 27 November Country studies. Retrieved 28 August Croatian Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 21 June Inter Press Service. Retrieved 30 July Government of Finland.

Retrieved 8 January Archived from the original XLS on 24 September Retrieved 7 December Archived from the original PDF on 18 September Retrieved 21 April Archived from the original PDF on 14 June Retrieved 11 February Retrieved 13 July Europe, Cleveland, OH: Eastword, pp.

Roma believe in a universal balance, called kuntari Despite a 1,year separation from India, Roma still practice 'shaktism', the worship of a god through his female consort Now and Then.

Australia: Open ABC. Archived from the original on 11 August Retrieved 28 July Retrieved 8 December Rough Guides. Bhanoo 11 December New York Times.

The Gypsies, or Romanies, are an ethnic group that arrived in Europe around the 14th century. Scholars argue about when and how they left India , but it is generally accepted that they did emigrate from northern India some time between the 6th and 11th centuries, then crossed the Middle East and came into Europe.

University of Manchester. Romani Linguistics and Romani Language Projects. Retrieved 23 July Professor take on roles of Romani activist and spokesperson to improve plight of their ethnic group".

Archived from the original on 5 February Retrieved 30 January Tattoos: Back piece of a phoenix, peonies and cherry blossoms, four feline paws on right calf, three stars behind right ear, meneki neko on left wrist, cherries and an eternity vine wrapped around right wrist.

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